\  Diagnosis

How is it diagnosed?
Diagnosis is suspected clinically by patient history and examination. It is confirmed by EMG and nerve conduction tests. MRI of brain and spinal cord, lumbar puncture and blood tests are normal in MND and are done to exclude other diseases.

What is the prognosis?
Prognosis depends on the rate of progression of the disease. Rapidly progressive disease has poor prognosis. But the slow progressive can take several years course. Professor Stephen Hawking is a well-known example of a person with MND, and has lived for nearly 50 years with the disease. The television film Hawking starring Benedict Cumberbatch was made in 2004 about him and this disease. Of all types PLS type has better prognosis and bulbar type has poor performance.

Will it get transmited to children of affected person?
If there is no family history, the disease will not be transmitted to their children. Their children will not be affected by the disease.


Early stage

Progressive stage

Advanced stage

Speech disturbances

  • Increased effort of speech

  • Softening of voice after talking for sometime

  • Slurring of speech

  • Inability to speak for a long time with high fatigability

  • Inability to speak

  • Unintelligible speech

  • Complete loss of speech

Swallowing difficulty

  • Infrequent choking and coughing after drinking liquids

  • More frequent episodes of choking and coughing

  • Inability to swallow tablets

  • Inability to swallow tablets

  • Inability to swallow solid food, food needs to mashed up

  • Inability to swallow

  • Considerable aspiration

  • Continuous drooling of saliva

Breathing difficulty

  • Heavy breathing physical activity

  • Feeling out of breath upon walking or climbing stairs

  • Feeling out of breath while eating, bathing and activities of daily living

  • Feeling out of breath upon lying in bed flat

  • Inability to breathe while talking for a longtime

  • Using neck muscles excessively while breathing

  • Inability to breathe without external device support


  • Minimal drooling at night time

  • Drooling in posture with neck in flexion

  • General feeling of excess saliva in mouth

  • Considerable drooling throughout the day

  • Spitting of saliva while speaking and difficulty to swallow the excess saliva

  • Sticky, thick saliva

  • Inability to swallow the saliva

  • Continuous drooling

Facial muscle weakness

  • Twitching in the cheeks and chin

  • Spilling of water while gargling due to inability

  • Difficulty in opening the mouth

  • Affected facial expression

  • Facial asymmetry

  • Minimal opening of the mouth

Neck muscle weakness

  • Mild fasciculations in the neck region

  • Difficulty to lift the head up from supine

  • Difficulty holding the neck in the upright position

  • Difficulty lifting the head up after flexing the neck

  • Inability to look up in sitting position

  • Severe neck cramps


  • Uncontrolled, sudden twitching of muscles

  • Increased frequency of twitching

  • Twitching of muscle in more

  • Reduced frequency of twitching in the body parts that have undergone

We are a dedicated group towards well being of people with MND and their families. We understand the difficult problems they have to face due to the disease. We are well aware of their special needs and challenges to be met. We support them in all possible ways.

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